The art of illumination (Tazhib) gradually has formed with genesis of orthography.

Illumination background initiated by Manichean manuscripts in Persia. The gold colour in Manichean manuscript's embellishments by reason of dualism perspective for darkness/brightness and authenticity of light realm gotten credit as a dream allegory.

This art distributed among the world by Persian artists both pre Islamic and Islamic era as a profession. The artist uses abstract and two dimensional designs in this field for that he ought to loyal to paper surface, Calligraphy and religious beliefs in decorating high literature and sacred texts.

The mission of illumination is making pictorial and to depict the truth of objects beside God word as the sacred discourses represent the truth of the world. In fact illumination is a meta abstract and extra abstract art and attempts to reveal mysterious truths of objects and other creatures moreover.

The eastern illumination artist does not create any figure or role even any used colour in vain and fruitless.

All materials he need to use in his works have been coincided with his oriental world outlook since a long time ago, which is spirit travel from integral part to complex whole and vice versa. Fractional geometric hermeneutics of new world order tell us integral parts follow on the whole regulation and on the other hand the whole is the regulator of all integral parts which in them the whole appears such a monad interior of a part separately.

The aesthetics function and illumination principles have been firmed up in accord with such organized logos by eastern artist until now. Nevertheless this transcendental art has been secondary in manuscripts.

This transcendent art has gotten technical and truism rules so the artist could exhibit the eternal truth of the world by them. Ironically it is not need to be with a significant plan or context.

Almost always delicacy is one of the most important rules in illumination, because final cause of its creation and applying finesse and finesse embellishment in very little marginal space on book pages reveal the plurality realm.


Symbolic expression of illumination

  Forms and functions

Eslimi: Animal Status

Khotai: vegetable status

Spiral: move to virtuosity-ascension- make circular up (for perfection)

Shamsa: Symbol of perfection-source of light-absolute

Hashia: Physical Mould- the inspiration places

Sar Lawh: Domelike from over Hashia (entrance of Physical Mould)

Neshan: Symbol of evolution route with various forms

Sharfa: Symbol of radius, Connecting circle between being and nonebeing , move on consistency.



  Gold: The most pure colour, light, sun, right, purity, interior, man guide from interior to exterior (supernal Status)

Silver: The colour is losing its purity gradually (humanistic status)

Azure: supplementary of gold colours-universe-heaven-man guide from exterior to interior

Verdigris: Connection between gold and azure colours(nature between land and heaven)

Vermilion: connection between gold and azure colours (nature between land and heaven)

Black: the most perfect colour-expression of perfection (bewilderment status)

Ochre: Microcosm (soil status)


To write paper off:

  Needle status: in this style the thickness of writing is as much as a string of hair and does not perform with any quickness or slowness representing artist feeling and passion. This method would have performed if there were not any egoism. In fact the illumination wisdom is: The truth is there nothing else. When the artist will power to write, he should hold his breath for perfect and precise writing: to move from being to nonbeing on.


Pardaz (buffing): there are two style :

•  spot like

•  blot and brand